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You provide the full draft of the manuscript in preparation for submission, either for examination (thesis/dissertation) or for publication.

The copyediting process involves the detailed page-by-page in-text editing of copy (manuscript). It includes: correcting mechanical errors such as punctuation, typos, and grammar; commenting on sentence structure, inconsistency, unnecessary repetition, suspected plagiarism, and the logical flow of the content; and correcting citation formatting. Based on this approach, I do not do any ‘light editing’ — given my meticulous attention to detail and my commitment to polishing every document to make it shine, I approach every editing assignment with the same vigour and respect.

I use Track Changes in Microsoft Word. Upon completion of the copyediting process, I return the document to you with the recommended changes, corrections and notes, together with a style sheet, to apply the required revisions.


Academic publications are required to conform to a specific format. Universities usually have a required writing and referencing style for all their institutional publications, such as APA, Chicago, Harvard, etc. Peer-reviewed journals generally have their own Style Guide or Author Guidelines, requiring strict adherence by authors. Where no guidelines exist, I will discuss and reach agreement with you on the style to be applied.

I format the document in accordance with the style requirements of the institution, journal or publisher. I do this before the editing process commences, to give me an overview of the document. Formatting brings about consistency of heading levels, paragraph styles, and table and figure captions, ensuring that headings and page numbers are synchronised with the updatable table of contents.


I check that all in-text citations and entries in the reference list have been formatted according to the required referencing style. I flag any omissions from the reference list, as well as sources listed but not mentioned in the text — only the sources cited in the text are included in the reference list. As the author, it is your responsibility to provide the missing bibliographic information.


This is the final stage of the publishing process, where I do detailed editing to correct typos, inaccuracies, formatting, and citations, after receiving your revised manuscript, or the typeset page proofs from the publisher for the final markup.

At this stage of the publishing process, editors and publishers do not permit any further changes, added text, or copyediting.

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